Unlike the cartridges identification there is no unification or standardization for bullets. The bullet identification is performed by the manufacturer. For differentiating of bullets construction and properties the manufacturers established bullets identification in numbers or abbreviations or commercial names (e.g. Lapua Vulkan, Brenneke Torpedo, Winchester Failsafe, Remington CoreLokt, PMP ProAmm, Nosler Partition, Balistictip, TXP, CDP (Controlled Deformation Process etc.). Internationally the wider use is gained by the frequent application of English terms. For the German ammunition manufacturers the bullets designation is based on abbreviations of German names.
THE MOST COMMON BULLETS DESIGNATIONS:
FMJ = Full Metal Jacket
HPC = Hollow Point Cawled
HPBT = Hollow Point Boat Tail
JSP = Jacketed Soft Point
JHP = Jacketed Hollow Point
SP = Soft Point
SBT = Soft Boat Tail
SPCE = Soft Point Cutting Edge
BULLET CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES
This bullet consists of metal jacket and lead core. The bullet is designed in such a way that the jacket covering the lead core is left open at the tip. This tip or nose when hitting the target expands into mushroom shape, which enhances the lethal effect. This bullet construction pattern is used for most of the rifle cartridges and according to caliber and weight is applied mainly for hoofed game hunting.
This bullet features a cutting edge formed from its jacket, which partially locks the lead core. The bullet effect depends on the target resistance, resulting in that that at the weaker game the bullet deforms less vehemently than it is for the stronger game. Practical results show that this bullet featuring the cutting edge has better ballistic results (spread) than the type mentioned above.
SPCE-DC (SB MHP-DC)
The bullet features a lead core made of two lead alloys having different hardness. The front soft section easily deforms upon impact and the second section, which is made from the hard alloy retains its shape. This combination brings together two requirements. An efficient wounding effect with a great penetration. It is suitable for vital game hunting.
The lead core is encased in a metal jacket. Due to its strong construction it has a limited capacity to expand and creates smooth penetration, as it is not deformed upon entering the target. It is used for hunting of trophy game and for sport shooting.
HPC (SB DHK)
A special bullet that has a pit or hollowed out shape in its tip intended to expand, which is covered by the copper cawl. The hollow out shape facilitates bullet deformation (mushrooming) when impacting the target, but the ballistic performance slightly deteriorates. For this reasons the bullet is covered with cawl. This type of bullet features a significant fragmentation effect and is thus used for hunting of heavy vital game and carnivorous animals.
The bullet of the Sierra brand having a mini-cavity and the base made in the boat tail-like shape. This projectile excels in exceptionally advantageous ballistic properties and top accuracy of fire. The cavity (hollow space) through the so called hydro effect enhances the wounding damage. This bullet is used for hunting all light and moderately heavy types of game.
The “Torpedo Ideal” and “Torpedo Universal Geschoss” – the original bullet construction with a dual core by Wilhelm Brenneke, which ensures an ideal mushroom-like deformation and very reliable and balanced wounding effect.
The bullet by the Federal Premium® Ammunition features the lead core only in the front section, the rear section is formed by the solid metal and bonding the front core to the jacket. This bullet has been developed by the African games hunter Mr. Jack Carter. The bullet excels with its wounding effect even for heavy and tough game.
The bullet made by the Norma Company features a dual-core separated by a partition in the jacket having the letter “A” shape. The bullet excels at deep penetration and shock effect even for heavy game and reliable controlled bullet decomposition.
The bullet made by the Norma Company with enhanced strength of bondage of the core and jacket applying a special process and also having jacket folded at the bullet tip. This bullet shows excellent properties for deep penetration and shock effect.
The bullet made by the Nosler Company. The construction contains the jacket having the letter “A” shape where partition encloses two cores. This bullet has an excellent wounding effect and moreover stands out for its accuracy, which is up to target bullets.
The Controlled Deformation Process. The latest bullet design by two companies, i.e. Blaser and RWS. The dual-core is enclosed in the letter “H” jacket with partition. This projectile achieves a high wounding effect and excellent accuracy for all types of game.
The bullet featuring a dual-core and a dual form of jacket designed by the German RWS Company. The harder tail core has an additional tough Tombak jacket separating it from the softer tip core in softer Tombak jacket. After an impact the rear tougher section of the projectile forms a cutting edge. The bullet is suitable for hunting of smaller and medium sized game where it shows a very good wounding effect and particularly spares game.
The bullet by the PMP Company featuring a dual-lead core. For ensuring controlled mushroom-like deformation is the jacket mid-section strengthened. This bullet shows excellent wounding effects.
The bullet made by the Nosler Company having an expansive cavity at the bullet tip which is covered with polycarbonate. The cavity ensures the bullet deformation up to the heavy section of the jacket which acts as a platform for a large-diameter mushroom. This projectile shows a very good wounding effect and excels for its accuracy, which is up to target bullets.
The bullet made by the American bullets producer. The whole bullet is made for composite material. There’s a cavity in the tip having variable wall thickness. This adjustment provides for bullet controlled deformation into a mushroom having cloverleaf cross-section. It is a very compact and consistent bullet, which is preferably used for heavier game hunting.
The semi-jacketed bullet made by the America specialize producer having excellent ballistic characteristics and universal application for small and medium sized game.
Source: Dr. Ing. Jiří Hanák M. Sc.